The design of the speaker is the design of the low frequency. This actually refers to the relationship between the internal volume of the box and the vibration generated after the unit is working, and it is directly related to the performance of low-frequency energy and texture.
As for the middle and high frequencies, although there is a certain relationship with the shape of the front baffle of the speaker, the relationship with the crossover will be greater.
In the early days, the cabinets were mostly wooden structures, and they were not made of various materials such as slate, metal, and marble as they are today. Why is there such a variety of cabinet materials now? The purpose is to reduce the breathing effect of the box. Because the breathing effect of the wooden box is very significant, the materials of the box are becoming more and more diverse nowadays.
From the perspective of bionics, the chest cavity is always expanding and contracting with people's breathing.
The movement of the unit on the box is similar to people's breathing. With "breathing", the rigidity of the box body weakens, and the internal pressure of the box body also decreases.
From another point of view, the internal pressure is very much like a spring. When the spring is tight, the reaction force is stronger, and the low-frequency force will appear stronger. On the contrary, if the spring is relatively loose, the power of the low frequency will also be weakened, and the sense of hearing will be looser.
Therefore, materials of different strengths and volumes of different sizes have a direct impact on the performance of low frequencies. This also makes the materials for making boxes on the market diversified.
Wood material comes from nature, and its resonance is relatively natural. The older generation of speaker designers have a deep understanding of this kind of materials and can be said to be masters of the use of wood materials.
In the minds of Chinese enthusiasts, many famous boxes are made of wooden boxes, such as speakers such as 3/5a.
The cabinet made of wooden materials also has a certain "breathing effect", so the low frequency is relatively soft.
If you want the low frequency to be more explosive, you will choose a stronger material to improve the spring effect, which will make the low frequency more powerful.
In wood materials, there are also many different options. For example, MDF, high-density multilayer board, graphite sheet and so on.
The strength of these materials is different, and the box spring effect produced is naturally different, and the resonance frequency of the box will of course be different.
In the past, we often saw that some wooden boxes were coated with materials such as asphalt, which can increase the damping of the box, and also change or reduce the resonance of the box to make the sound performance clearer.
Therefore, different understandings of materials and different ways of using them will of course bring about different production results.
Designers who use rigid materials to make cabinets usually want to be able to accurately restore the information brought by records; while designers who use wooden materials to make cabinets usually think that wooden materials are closer to the sounds of musical instruments and the natural world, and use wooden materials to make them. The cabinet will make the performance of music more harmonious.
Therefore, two major schools have basically formed in the production of the cabinet.
Therefore, boxes made of different materials have their own characteristics.
However, how to make full use of the advantages of materials and avoid deficiencies as much as possible requires repeated practice and a certain degree of understanding.
The so-called comprehension requires a deep understanding of the relationship between sound and materials, and materials cannot be used solely for the purpose of using materials.
Among the speakers that we have touched, some use metal materials, and some use hard plastics. Among them, the bad resonance of some product cabinets is relatively more serious, and it does not provide much substantial help to the accurate restoration of the sound and the natural and harmonious expression.
Theoretically speaking, for audio equipment made of metal materials, the more inert the better, the lower the resonance frequency, the better, and the thicker the material, the better.
The Lp turntable of Duonens reference one is an excellent product that impressed me. Lead particles are added to a variety of metal materials to make it extremely inert. As a floppy disk, not only the mid and high frequencies have excellent continuity, but the mid and low frequencies also have a considerable sense of authority. It's a pity that this is a generation that has lost ground.
If the material used in the metal box is relatively thin, the resonance point will be higher, that is to say, the inertia is not strong enough, it is easy to cause some "resonance", the control of resonance is not as natural as making a better wooden box.
So don't simply think that if metal materials have higher strength, the resonant frequency must be low. To give a simple example, all of us have heard the sound of a bronze bell in a temple. Because the material of the bronze bell is relatively thick, the sound it emits is deep and energetic.
As for the copper gongs and cymbals of the same material, as the thickness decreases, the emitted frequency will increase, and the sound will appear clearer and brighter. Therefore, we must have a correct understanding of the inertia of metal materials.
The lower the resonant frequency, the better. Relatively speaking, the resonant frequency of the cast metal sheet is lower than that of the bent metal sheet, the thicker one is lower than the thinner, and the multiple mixed materials are lower than a single material.
Therefore, we often see that different damping materials are added to different boxes to form a sandwich structure. This is actually to reduce and disperse the resonance point, so that the restoration of the music signal is not interfered by the resonance frequency of the cabinet.
Therefore, metal cabinets must pay attention to both materials and thickness. It's a pity that some designers don't pay enough attention to this aspect, and the materials used in the cabinet are too thin. Compared with the well-made wooden cabinet, the sound dyeing of this kind of speakers is more serious.
Early sound designers did not have so many materials to choose from, so they could only make cabinets with wooden materials, and they had more experience in the use of wooden materials in repeated practice. Therefore, the masters of that generation, the use of wood materials can be said to be the best, and they are all masters of "playing with wood".
The box they made uses the resonance of the box to increase the energy of the sound to a certain extent, so that the beneficial resonance of the box and the signal of the music are integrated, making the sense of hearing more pleasant.
In the minds of Chinese enthusiasts, such speakers are usually marked as "musical", while high-rigidity speakers are included in the "high-reduction technology category." In fact, the two are not contradictory, they are both to accurately and vividly restore the music, but some do it well, and some play it badly.
The development of the material industry provides some shortcuts for the production of cabinets. But from the perspective of experience and experimentation, and because of convenience, some designers lack the opportunity to "play things". Of course, it also reduces the accumulation of some experience and reduces the further understanding of material properties.
When we understand these principles, in the process of building a sound system, we must listen to its analytical power, but also the accuracy of its timbre restoration, as well as its sense of energy and speed of response.
If these aspects can meet your requirements, you don't need to care too much about what material the cabinet is made of.
In the process of selecting speakers, we often see some enthusiasts who will knock on the cabinet with their hands.
In fact, it is the sound of knocking on the box, which is to judge the resonance frequency of the box.
In a wooden box, this judgment is relatively easy. Generally speaking, when you hit the cabinet, you can hear a clean wooden sound or close to "silent", that is to say, you can hear the sound of the board itself, rather than the vibration and resonance of the cabinet. The cabinet production is relatively successful.
If you can hear the "popping" box resonance sound during percussion, usually such resonance will have a certain impact on the clarity and gradation of the low frequency.
So we say that the speaker design is actually a low-frequency design. Only with good performance in low frequencies can the overall performance of the music have a good restoration.