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Full analysis of the main indicators and parameters of the speakers

2021-04-25 372
Speakers are a tool for listening. Sound quality is its most important quality. As long as the sound is good, everything can be ignored—at least for lovers and enthusiasts who really need to buy speakers to listen to music. of. We know that sound is a subjective thing, and its quality is actually not judged by a strict established standard. It is mainly determined by personal preference. A high-value speaker does not necessarily satisfy everyone. A low-value speaker doesn't necessarily make everyone look down on it. Everyone has different listening preferences, different understanding of sound, and different requirements for sound quality, which in itself is difficult to standardize.

But these are just the sound style. For example, people’s preference for a sound style, speaker products still have a lot of hard qualities to speak of, although these hard qualities still cannot be accurately measured, but at least the hard qualities are good or bad. Still most people can agree with and can compare it. Many speakers use good frequency division technology, excellent cabinet design, good acoustic structure, and special unit technology to improve their rigid quality and bring a better sense of hearing.

How to count as qualified? Full analysis of the main indicators and parameters of the speakers

Quality does not necessarily mean that this speaker can certainly sound good, but the quality determines the quality of this speaker. Many people buy speakers like to look at the parameters, and some people never bother to look at them, but they have to admit that although the parameters are not the standard to determine whether the speakers are good or not, they can at least give people a reference. Many indicators actually have very practical significance, and these will directly affect their quality and ability, and what kind of music they can adapt to listening.

For example, power, unit size, and speaker material are all things people often pay attention to, but they also have some tricks. Many speaker salesmen just use some conceptually confusing parameter values to fool the half-knowing consumers. Therefore, we still need to understand and be clear about these parameters. Of course, there are also some parameter standards that you may not usually pay attention to. I hope that you can have a certain understanding in this article.

● Play power
The playback power index can be divided into two types: rated power and greater power. The rated power represents a continuous analog signal with a specified waveform to the speaker within the rated frequency range. After a certain time interval and repeating a certain number of times, the speaker of the speaker Larger electric power when no damage occurs. Generally speaking, in order to cater to the psychology of ordinary consumers, sellers often mark the music power very high, so the rated power must be used as the standard when selecting multimedia speakers.
The peak power is not equal to the rated power is 600W
The loudspeaker's larger capacity is mainly determined by the chip power of the power amplifier, and it has a lot to do with the power transformer. Feeling the weight difference between the main and auxiliary speakers can roughly understand the weight of the internal power transformer. Generally speaking, the heavier the transformer, the greater the power it can withstand. Of course, individual users should not care too much about its power when choosing a speaker. Usually, a speaker with a power of 50W is sufficient.

● Frequency response range
This indicator is actually composed of two parts: frequency range and frequency response. The frequency range represents the range between the lower value of the effective playback frequency of the speaker playback system and the higher value of the effective playback frequency; and the frequency response indicates that a stable voltage is used. When the output audio signal is connected to the speaker system, the sound pressure generated by the speaker system will increase or attenuate with the change of the sound frequency, and the phase will change with the frequency, and the frequency response refers to This kind of sound pressure is related to the change of phase and frequency, and the size of the frequency response is usually expressed in decibels.

This indicator is a very important standard to measure the overall performance of the speaker. This indicator is also directly related to the performance and price of the speaker. Generally, the smaller the decibel value of the frequency response, the flatter the frequency response curve of the speaker and the greater the distortion. The smaller, the higher the playback performance. Conversely, if the decibel value of the frequency response is larger, the playback distortion of the speaker will be greater, and the playback effect will be relatively worse.

Full analysis of the main indicators and parameters of the speakers

● Impedance
This index represents the ratio of the voltage to the current of the input signal of the speaker. Generally, the input impedance of the speaker can be divided into two categories: high impedance and low impedance. Among them, the speaker speakers higher than 16 ohms belong to the high impedance level, and they are lower than 8. The speakers of European speakers are of low impedance level, and the standard impedance of speakers is usually 8 ohms. When the power amplifier and output power are exactly the same, the use of low-impedance speakers can generally obtain a large output power, but if the impedance is too low, it may cause under-damping or even bass degradation. Therefore, it is recommended that you do not choose those low-impedance speakers. It is good to choose the international standard recommended value of 8 ohms.
At present, the nominal impedance of speakers on the market has several series such as 4 ohms, 5 ohms, 6 ohms, 8 ohms, and 16 ohms, among which the two standards of 4 ohms and 8 ohms are mostly. A concept that is easily confused with the impedance size index is called "damping coefficient". This concept refers to the speaker impedance divided by the internal resistance of the amplifier source, and the range is about 25-1000. The speaker cone has to oscillate several times after the electrical signal has disappeared to completely stop swinging, and the current and magnetic field generated by the voltage from the coil can prevent this parasitic movement, which is damping. The amplitude of the current, that is, the effect of damping, depends on 0.1 ohms, but due to the series resistance of the speaker voice coil and the series resistance of the crossover network, the damping coefficient is generally difficult to reach a size of 5O.

● Distortion degree
The concept of speaker distortion degree and amplifier distortion degree is basically the same, except that the amplifier input is an electrical signal, and the output is still an electrical signal, while the speaker input is an electrical signal, and the output is a sound wave signal. Therefore, the degree of distortion of the speaker represents the electrical signal. The amount of distortion that occurs when switching between the signal and the sound signal. Distortion degree index is only a more general term, which should be divided into three types: harmonic distortion, mutual distortion and transient distortion.
Harmonic distortion means the distortion caused by the addition of high-order harmonic components that the original signal does not have in the sound playback; the intermodulation distortion mainly affects the tonal quality of the sound broadcast by the speaker; and the transient distortion is due to the certain internal speaker of the speaker. The inertial mass exists, and the vibration of the basin body cannot keep up with the difference between the original signal and the playback tone caused by the instantaneous vibration of the electrical signal. Usually this indicator is expressed as a percentage. The smaller the percentage, the smaller the distortion of the speaker. Ordinary human ears are not very sensitive to distortion within 5%, so it is more suitable to choose a speaker with distortion less than 0.5%.

● Speaker material
The speaker material index indicates the quality of the materials that make up each part of the speaker. The better the material, the higher the price of the speaker. Generally, the enclosures of ordinary low-end speakers are mostly made of plastic. Such enclosures look thin and cannot overcome the acoustic resonance phenomenon during playback in the low-frequency range. At the same time, the sound of the two enclosures is very poorly broadcast; slightly better The speakers of a little material are mostly wooden speakers. This kind of speakers reduces the sound stain caused by the resonance of the cabinet to a certain extent, and the sound quality is generally better than low-end plastic speakers.
How does the sound of this plastic box speaker have to be a question mark
In addition to paying attention to the material of the cabinet shell, the quality of the materials that make up the speaker should also be considered. At present, the tweeter is usually dome-based, with titanium dome and soft dome. The former has a higher upper frequency limit, and the treble tone is bright, which is better than the latter in the analog sound source system; the latter is widely used in medium and high quality In the speaker, the combination with the digital sound source can reduce the harshness of the high-frequency signal, and give people a gentle, smooth, and delicate feeling. The speakers connected to the computer sound card use more dome tweeters such as PV film and silk film. PV film tweeter is the cheapest tweeter product, and the performance of the tweeter is not clear and clear.
The woofer is relatively important. The key is that it determines the sound characteristics of the speaker. The most common types are the following types: paper cone, pressed cone, paper-based wool hoop, reinforced paper cone, etc. The paper cone has a natural tone. It has the advantages of low cost, better rigidity, high internal damping, etc. The disadvantages are poor moisture resistance and difficult to control consistency during manufacturing. It has a relatively average expressive force for various music and sound effects, which is a universal feeling.
The larger the cabinet and the better the density, the better the anti-resonance performance

● Cabinet size
The size of the cabinet refers to the size of the speaker. Generally, you should choose a larger one as much as possible. The larger the volume of the speaker, the thicker the material selected for the speaker cabinet, the higher the material density, and the greater the anti-resonance performance. OK, so you can enjoy high-quality sound effects.

● Sensitivity
This indicator represents the sound pressure level measured at 1 meter in front of the vertical axis of the speaker plane when a 1W, 1000Hz sound signal is input to the speaker. Generally, the lower the input signal, the higher the response sensitivity of the speaker. Generally speaking, for every 3dB difference in the sensitivity of the speaker, the output sound pressure will be about twice as different; according to regulations, the sensitivity of 87dB is set as a mid-range level, and the sensitivity below 84dB is called low sensitivity, and high The value below 90dB is called high sensitivity. Under normal circumstances, the sensitivity of speakers is often improved at the expense of distortion, so the sensitivity of speakers should not be too high.

● S/N ratio
The signal-to-noise ratio indicates the ratio of the sound signal and the noise signal played back by the speaker under normal conditions. It directly affects the sound broadcast quality of the speaker. Generally, the lower the signal-to-noise ratio and the smaller the input signal, the more serious noise will appear in the speaker, and the sound in the entire sound range will obviously become muddy and unclear. What sound is it. In order to ensure the sound effect, it is recommended that speakers with a signal-to-noise ratio above 80dB can be included in the purchase range.

● Scalability
The scalability index indicates whether the speaker supports simultaneous input of multi-channel audio signals, whether there is an output interface connected to passive surround speakers, and whether it supports USB input or other digital input forms. Generally speaking, speakers with high scalability will be more adaptable in the future, and the compatibility with other multimedia devices will be better. Therefore, it is recommended that you choose speakers with strong scalability. Ensure that your speakers will not be eliminated within a few years.

Written at the end:
It can be said that some of the above parameters are often noticed by everyone, but for the degree of distortion and the sexual-to-noise ratio, only some old fans can fully understand and pay attention to them, and most people may ignore them. Although it is meaningless for us as normal speaker consumers to fully analyze the principle and meaning of these parameters, it is still necessary to know how these parameters are up to standard in the most basic way.
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