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Reasons for the use of crossovers for high and bass separated speakers

2021-04-24 20
Reasons for the use of crossovers for high and bass separated speakers

Frequency divider is a kind of audio equipment that can divide the sound signal into several frequency bands. We know that the frequency range of sound is between 20Hz—20kHz. I hope that only one speaker can guarantee the transmission. It is difficult to achieve wide-frequency sound like 20Hz—20kHz, because this will have various technical problems. All kinds of problems and difficulties. Therefore, under normal circumstances, high-quality sound reproduction systems, in order to ensure the frequency response and bandwidth of the reproduced sound, are mostly used in the professional field to use high-bass separated speakers for sound, and when high-bass separated speakers are used to transmit sound, It is necessary to use a frequency divider.

The reason for the use of a crossover in a high-bass separated speaker: the so-called high-bass separated speaker refers to a speaker in which the high-frequency part of the sound is reproduced by a tweeter, and the low-frequency part is reproduced by a woofer instead of a speaker. Only the speaker completes the task of playing the entire audio frequency band. In professional speakers, the tweeter is generally a horn speaker, and the woofer has a variety of forms such as direct and airflow. Regardless of whether it is internal frequency division or external frequency division, high-bass and low-frequency separation speakers must adopt a frequency division sound reproduction program. The main reasons are as follows.

1. Make various speakers work in the most suitable audio segment
Speakers with different diaphragm sizes and materials have different preferred operating frequency bands. The louder the speaker, the better the low-frequency characteristics. Therefore, when other conditions are the same, the bass effect of 18 inches is definitely better than that of 15 inches.
The better the rigidity and brittleness of the diaphragm material, and the lighter the mass, the better the high-frequency characteristics of the sound reproduction. Many tweeters use titanium membrane or indium membrane as the diaphragm material to improve their high-frequency characteristics; and the woofer diaphragm generally uses materials such as paper, carbon fiber, bulletproof cloth and rubber (edge) to facilitate bass reproduction.

Using a frequency divider can send high-frequency signals to the tweeter, and low-frequency signals to the woofer. The high and low-frequency signals go in their own way. As much as possible, the advantages of the working frequency band of the respective speakers are used to ensure the speakers of different working frequency bands. Give full play to its effect to make the playback characteristics of each frequency more balanced and consistent.

Reasons for the use of crossovers for high and bass separated speakers

2. Overcome the cutting distortion caused by the vibration amplitude of the diaphragm of the sound speaker with different frequencies
When the speaker sounds, the bass vibration amplitude of its vibration is large, and the treble vibration amplitude is small. Theoretically, the vibration amplitude of the speaker cone is inversely proportional to the square of the reproduced sound frequency, that is, the same speaker diaphragm, under the same amplitude of the signal voltage, the lower the frequency, the greater the amplitude, that is, if the frequency increases 10 times, the amplitude will be reduced by the square of 10 times, that is, 100 times.
If we use a loudspeaker to produce sound in a wide frequency range, due to the limitation of the mechanical performance of the diaphragm, it is very difficult to have a very wide vibration change at the same time, which will inevitably cause the phenomenon of sound cutting and distortion, so that the quality of the reproduced sound Affected.
Studies have found that the cutting distortion has a greater impact on the bass. When the woofer delivers the bass, as long as there are high-pitched components, it will inevitably lead to the cutting distortion, causing the bass to tremble and tremble. Of course, the cutting distortion of the tweeter will also make the treble appear hoarse, but the effect is not as great as the bass.

3. Reduce the sound interference between different speakers in the same speaker
For the tweeter and woofer in the separate high and bass speakers, although their working frequency bands are different, if the full-frequency signal is sent to the tweeter and woofer without crossover, there will definitely be high and woofer speakers. When the same sound is emitted at the same time, when the same sound from different speakers meets, it is likely that sound waves interfere with each other.
Anyone with a little common sense of acoustics knows that once the sound interference phenomenon occurs, a series of problems such as comb filter effect and standing wave will appear, and these problems will affect the good reproduction of sound to varying degrees.
After the crossover circuit is set, the tweeter and woofer respectively obtain their own better working frequency sound signals. The frequency range of the sound emitted between them is almost not covered. Except for the speaker crossover point and crossover area, there will be a small amount of interference. The interference phenomenon of frequency sound no longer exists at all.
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