The speaker is mainly composed of speaker unit, frequency divider, cabinet, inverter hole, terminal, wire, etc. From the perspective of maintenance, the first three items are the main ones, and the last three items are the second ones.
1. Speaker unit: The main structure of the speaker unit is composed of choke ring, sound cone, fixed core support piece, magnetic circuit (including magnet, T iron, voice coil), basin frame, etc., which affects the life of the speaker except that the voice coil is abnormal In addition to using burned, it is mainly the choke ring and the cone. Choke ring: The order of the life of the choke ring material is cloth edge, rubber-plastic composite edge, silicone rubber edge, and foam edge. The more easily damaged is the foam edge (for example, JBL has a LX series speaker). Because of the foam edge speaker unit, it will be broken and almost scrapped in 3-5 years of normal use. I helped my friend repair N such speakers. , Without exception, the foam fold ring is damaged. Of course, the material composition and production process of the foam edge are different, and the lifespan will also be different.
The second thing is to count the silicone rubber edges. The original domestic "Feilo" bass likes to use this choke ring. Its disadvantage is that if the process is improper, the time is long, it is easy to age and produce inert deformation and moire, which affects the use. Nowadays speaker manufacturers still widely use silicone rubber choke rings and rubber-plastic choke rings. The choke ring that greatly prolongs the life of the speaker unit is the cloth side choke ring. It is mostly used in professional speakers, but it is also useful in civilian products. For example, the 12-inch woofer YD315-8b produced in Nanjing uses a cloth edge choke.
2. Sound cone: In the use of the speaker unit, the sound cone adopts a variety of material forms: its bulletproof cloth, fiber woven cone, PP cone, mica polypropylene cone, aluminum-magnesium alloy cone and other problems are not big, mainly Paper-based or paper-based composite basins, due to the presence of protein fibers, are almost inevitably eroded by mold in the humid areas of the south, that is, our common mold spots and white spots are a headache. The sound of this cone is soft and pure, and it is highly favored by speaker manufacturers. For example, "JBL" in the United States, "Wefa" in Denmark, and "Siyas" in Norway all produce a large number of paper-based or paper-based composite cone speakers. How to maintain it, especially for high-end speakers Maintenance is of great concern to enthusiasts.
3. Basin frame: There are two kinds of materials for the basin frame, namely, thin iron stamping basin frame and aluminum basin frame. Of course, there are other materials, such as nylon plastic basin frame (Aopu 802 and Siya H545). Use this kind of basin frame. Most of the imported and domestic high-quality speaker units use aluminum frame, which has high strength and superior seismic performance, which is much better than ordinary stamped iron frame. But the small-caliber unit doesn't matter. And the centering brackets (ie, yellow boards) are all linen products produced by a special process, as long as they are not degummed, there is nothing to say.
4. Magnet: The magnet is almost maintenance-free, but it will lose magnetism a little over time, but it will not have a big impact on the overall performance. At most, the sensitivity is slightly reduced, but it is only minimal. The anti-magnetic horn is better than the ordinary non-anti-magnetic situation. Much better.
2. How to maintain the speakers and speaker units, I will tell you the maintenance experience over the years:
1. The cabinet is better to be made of logs, and it is better to use high-wear and high-strength paint products for exterior decoration, but it is more common; most of them use high-density machine-made boards to decorate wood grain paper or veneer (if there is no paint on the exterior) , It is recommended to repaint N times). The location should be in a dry room, avoid direct sunlight as much as possible, and never place it in a damp place to prevent the high-density machine-made board from swelling due to dampness, which is troublesome. And don’t leave the speaker unused for a long time. Use it at least 1-3 times a month, and use it for more than an hour each time, otherwise it will bring a lot of trouble, such as static fatigue of the material, leakage of the non-polar electrolytic capacitor in the frequency divider, etc. It affects the normal work at the slightest degree, and affects its lifespan at the worst.
2. Maintenance of the speaker unit (whether it is in the cabinet or a newly purchased speaker unit.)
(1) Carefully remove the speaker unit in the finished product box, be careful, and mark the position with an oil-based pen on the box body and the speaker, so that it can be reset and installed after maintenance.
(2) Prepare a box of imported white solid car wax (used on imported brand cars) and apply it evenly on the upper and lower T irons of the magnetic steel. Generally, this T iron is made of galvanized iron. If the basin frame is an iron basin The frame must also be treated in this way, so that the wax is attached to it, and do not wipe it off, which can prevent it from being rusted for N years.
(3) The two parabolic braided soft copper wires that lead from the sound coil to the terminal of the speaker unit must also be coated with wax and evened back and forth with your fingers. Do not wipe it off to prevent the lead time from being too long. Blackening becomes less elastic and affects work.
(4) If the paper-based or paper-based composite basin has mildew spots and white spots, please use a medical alcohol cotton ball to wipe it carefully from the back (the alcohol cotton ball should be twisted half-dry and half-damp, not too wet, and no seepage. The surface of the cone). If there are mildew spots and white spots on the surface, only use 40-45° of warm water, add a few hand sanitizer shampoos, and wipe with a clean soft towel dipped in water, wring it out, and do not rub it repeatedly. Do not rub it with alcohol or the like, with volatile organic solvents to avoid mottling.
(5) After the high-quality speaker has been thoroughly cooked (usually 1-3 months), use it for a while, about half a year to a year, and then remove the mid-bass unit on the speaker (don't move the treble) Rotate the position by 180 degrees and then install it back (one maintenance has been marked, this time you only need to install it upside down) to make the speaker more balanced under the influence of its own gravity. At the same time, check whether there is any need for wax repair, such as Need to make up again.
(6) Maintenance of the frequency divider. First look at the frequency divider. There is a capacitor connected in series to the tweeter. Is it a high-quality MKP frequency divider capacitor (the general capacity and withstand voltage are 2.2-6.8uf/100-400v , The capacity is different depending on the crossover point), if it is used, don't move it, otherwise, you must replace it with a high-quality MKP crossover capacitor anyway. Brands such as "Sulun" from France, "Weimar" from Germany or "MIT" from the United States can not only guarantee the reproduction of the tone, but also make it difficult to damage the tweeter due to the small leakage current.
After the frequency divider is changed, apply a layer of wax evenly on the reverse side of the printing plate with car wax. Or if you have better conditions, you can use quick-drying insulating varnish to brush twice, so the effect will be better. My self-made frequency divider uses the method of brushing quick-drying insulating varnish, and the second time is enough to prevent copper oxide from being oxidized. Green rust and black solder joints.
The above is only personal maintenance experience. For those who lack hands-on experience, you must pay attention to it, especially when disassembling imported finished speakers. In addition to the special tools required to remove the screws, the actual operation requirements are quite high. It is better to disassemble It is always appropriate for the two to work together. In a word, if the speakers are used properly and properly maintained, there is no problem in using them for 15 years or more.