1. Determine the type of crossover according to the composition of the speaker unit of the speaker:
Whether the speaker is a high-bass two-way frequency or a high school-bass three-way frequency, it is necessary to correspond to the two-way and three-way frequency divider, and there may be special speaker designs such as high, medium, low, bass three-way four units, etc. Need to customize the frequency divider;
2. Determine the frequency divider according to the speaker power:
The frequency divider has a power range, such as 5～10W, 10～30W, 50～200W and so on. The suitable power of the frequency divider must be greater than or equal to the speaker power but does not need to be too large, otherwise it may damage the frequency divider or excessive audio power consumption on the frequency divider, and the high-power frequency divider used on the small speaker will increase Capital investment;
3. Determine the crossover point of the frequency divider according to the crossover frequency of the speaker unit:
For example, the frequency range of the woofer of the speaker is 45Hz～1200Hz, the midrange horn is 900Hz～5000Hz, and the tweeter is 3500Hz～22000Hz, then the bass crossover point of the frequency divider is 1000Hz～1100Hz, and the treble crossover point is 4000Hz～4500Hz.
Structure of speaker frequency divider
Connect the circuit of the tweeter: let the current flow through the capacitor first, prevent low frequencies, let high frequencies pass, and the horn is connected in parallel with a coil, so that the coil generates a negative voltage, then this voltage is exactly a voltage compensation for the tweeter, so it can Approximately realistically restore the sound current.
Connect the woofer circuit: the current flows through the coil first, so that the high frequency part is blocked, and the low frequency band is passed smoothly because the coil basically has no blocking effect. Similarly, the woofer is connected in parallel with a capacitor, which is to use the capacitor to generate a high frequency. The voltage to compensate for the loss of voltage is the same as the tweeter terminal.
It can be seen that the characteristics of capacitors and coils fully utilized by the frequency divider achieve frequency division. However, the coils and capacitors still consume voltage in the frequency range that they hinder, so the circuit divider will lose a certain amount of sound, and there are many compensation measures. Due to the author's insufficient knowledge, it is difficult to say clearly. The electronic frequency division solves this problem. When the sound is input to the power amplifier, the frequency is divided first, and then special amplifying circuits are used to amplify different frequency bands. In this way, the sound distortion is small and the sound is restored to life. But the circuit is complicated and expensive to build.