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How to match power amplifier and speakers

2021-04-13 52
In a home theater system, if you want to get the best sound quality + picture quality effect, you must master the matching method of speakers and amplifiers, otherwise no matter how good the equipment is, it will not be able to play its due performance.
When designing and installing a sound system, it is inevitable to encounter problems with the connection of power amplifiers and speakers. From the artistic point of view, the matching of power amplifiers and speakers should be warm and cold, soft and hard, and ultimately make the whole set of equipment restore the tone to be neutral. From a technical point of view, the following points should be paid attention to when connecting power amplifiers and speakers: power matching; power reserve matching; impedance matching; damping coefficient matching. If we recognize the above four points when mating, the performance of the equipment used can be brought into full play.

1. The main power of general household speakers and power amplifiers is divided into three types: the power of the power amplifier is greater than the power of the speaker; the power of the power amplifier is basically equal to the power of the speaker; the power of the power amplifier is less than the power of the speaker.

2. The relationship between the power amplifier and the audio; unlike household appliances that must be rated current and voltage to work normally; otherwise it will be damaged; the relationship between the power amplifier and the audio is dynamic; in other words, even 500W speakers; use 100W The power amplifier can also be pushed; the state that the speaker can express is the performance of other power amplifiers at 100W; but the instantaneous dynamics will be much worse; because the power amplifier has no reserve power at this time; so the speaker sounds soft and weak, of course The price of this type of audio is relatively low;


How to match power amplifier and speakers


3. Generally, the nominal power of household power amplifiers is basically the power at 8Ω. For example, the nominal power of Yamaha AX-380 is 55W&TImes;2/8Ω. Sometimes the peak power is also marked, for example, the Yamaha AX-380 is also marked with 94W&TImes;2/8Ω.

4. Since the power of the power amplifier is basically the same as the power of the speaker, the sound of each frequency band of the speaker will be accurately reflected when listening to music. Under the premise of normal use (the high frequency and low frequency are not boosted too much, there is no feedback screaming when singing karaoke), it is generally not easy to damage the speaker.

1. Impedance matching
It means that the rated output impedance of the power amplifier should be consistent with the rated impedance of the speaker. If the rated impedance of the speaker is greater than the rated output impedance of the power amplifier, the actual output power of the power amplifier will be less than the rated output power. If the rated impedance of the speaker is less than the rated output impedance of the power amplifier, the audio system can work, but the power amplifier is in danger of overload. The power amplifier is required to have complete overcurrent protection measures to solve it. The impedance matching requirements for the tube power amplifier are more stringent.

2. Power matching
1. When the speaker rated power is inconsistent with the rated power of the power amplifier, for the power amplifier, its power is only related to the speaker impedance, not the rated power of the speaker. Regardless of whether the speaker power is the same as the power amplifier power, it has no effect on the work of the power amplifier, but is only related to the safety of the speaker itself.
2. If the speaker impedance meets the matching requirements, and the withstand power is less than the power of the amplifier, then the driving power is sufficient, which sounds very comfortable. This is often said that the reserve power of the power amplifier must be large in order to fully express the full content of the music, especially the low frequency part of the music, which is more vivid and powerful. This is a good match.
3. If the rated impedance of the speaker is greater than the rated power of the power amplifier, although both can work safely, at this time, the power amplifier is not enough to drive the power, and the loudness will be insufficient. It often appears that it has been turned on to a saturated state, and the distortion is aggravated. Powerless. This is a poor match.

Three, damping coefficient matching
The damping coefficient kd is defined as: kd = rated output impedance of the power amplifier (equal to the rated impedance of the speaker)/power amplifier output internal resistance. Since the internal resistance of the power amplifier output has actually become the resistance of the speaker, the kd value determines the amount of resistance experienced by the speaker.
Some speakers need a high damping coefficient to control the action of the unit, but if it is equipped with a power amplifier with insufficient damping coefficient, the unit will lose control, and excess resonance and audio loss will occur; on the contrary, if a pair does not require a high damping coefficient The speaker is equipped with a high-damping power amplifier. Because the unit is controlled by high damping, the sound will become solid and the sound tail will be extremely short.

4. Power storage capacity matching
The so-called "power storage" is also for speakers. It is worth noting that the choice of power amplifier must be determined by the speaker. There should not be a concept of "power reserve" to configure the power amplifier. In other words, under a certain target loudness, The speaker can be larger than the design value for different purposes, and the power of the amplifier should be strictly determined by the speaker without much flexibility.

What to pay attention to when matching power amplifier and speakers
In principle, when the speaker rated power is inconsistent with the rated power of the power amplifier, for the power amplifier, its power is only related to the speaker impedance, and has nothing to do with the rated power of the speaker. Regardless of whether the speaker power is the same as the power amplifier power, it has no effect on the work of the power amplifier, but is only related to the safety of the speaker itself.
If the speaker impedance meets the matching requirements, and the withstand power is less than the power of the amplifier, then the driving power is sufficient and it sounds very comfortable. This is often said that the reserve power of the power amplifier must be large in order to fully express the full content of the music, especially the low frequency part of the music, which is more vivid and powerful. This is a good match.
If the rated impedance of the speaker is greater than the rated power of the power amplifier, although both can work safely, the power amplifier is not enough to drive the power, and you will feel that the loudness is insufficient. It often appears that it has been turned on to a saturated state, the distortion is aggravated, and you still feel powerless. This is a poor match.
The damping coefficient of the power amplifier is better. When the damping coefficient of the low-end power amplifier is less than 10, the low-frequency characteristics, output characteristics, and high-order harmonic characteristics of the speakers will all deteriorate.
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