Whether you are a music enthusiast or not, I believe you must have seen wooden or plastic speakers. If you decide that the speakers only need these two materials, then you are wrong. In addition to wood, plastic, there are glass, metal, and stone speakers. There are many kinds of materials, so what are the characteristics of these different materials? What is the best material?
The most common and popular one is wooden speakers, but it is worth noting that wooden cabinets are not equivalent to pure logs. Wooden panels can be classified into solid wood panels and wood-based panels according to their materials. Nowadays, in addition to the use of solid wood panels for floors and door leaves, usually the panels we use are artificial panels. Artificial board also includes density board and particle board, we will introduce in detail below.
1. Natural solid wood
Its cost is relatively high, and its quality is much heavier than speakers of equal volume. It is usually used in advanced speakers. The board of solid wood speakers usually chooses precious hardwoods such as mahogany, rosewood, peach, sandalwood, etc., and the best is the seamless whole board, which is the cutting-edge material for the speaker.
But such materials are difficult to find, expensive, and difficult to process. Followed by are willow wood, jujube wood, catalpa wood, etc., the ones with high specificity and uniform wood are better. New materials are easily deformed when wet, so they can be applied after drying. Therefore, it is sometimes divided into high-end products, and different woods are also used as a commodity-level logo.
2. Artificial board
1), density board
Density board (English: High Density Board (wood)) is also called fiberboard, which is made by soaking wood, tree technology and other objects in water and then hot grinding, paving, and hot pressing. It is made of wood fiber or other plant fibers. As the material, artificial board made of urea-formaldehyde resin or other suitable adhesives is applied.
Because of its softness, impact resistance, high strength, uniform density after restriction, and simple reprocessing, but the defect is poor water resistance. Therefore, it is more common to use it as a speaker cabinet.
Classification of density board: According to the different density, it can be divided into high density board (density ≥880 kg/m3), medium density board (density of 550 kg-880 kg/m3), low density board (density less than 550 kg /cubic meter). There are two common specifications for industrial sheet materials, 1220*2440mm and 1525*2440mm, with a thickness of 2.0mm~25mm. Among them, the most suitable medium density fiberboard for speakers.
Medium-density fiberboard is made of wood fiber or other plant fibers, applied urea-formaldehyde resin or other composition resins, and restricted under heating and pressurizing conditions. The density is 0.50～0.88g/cm3. The appropriate additives to improve the properties of the board. Medium-density fiberboard has outstanding physical and mechanical functions and processing functions, and can be made into boards of different thicknesses, so it is widely used in furniture manufacturing, construction, and interior decoration.
Medium-density fiberboard is a homogeneous porous material with good acoustic function, which is a good material for making speakers and musical instruments. In addition, it can also be used to replace natural wood in ships, vehicles, sports equipment, floors, wall panels, partitions, etc. It has the characteristics of low cost, simple processing, high utilization rate, and more economical than natural wood.
2), particle board
Particle board (particle board), also known as particle board, bagasse board, is a wood-based board made of wood or other lignocellulosic materials and glued under the effect of heat and pressure after applying an adhesive, also known as particle board. Mainly used in the furniture and construction industry, as well as the production of trains and passenger cars. Particleboard can also be divided into three categories according to commodity density: low density (0.25～0.45 g/cm3), medium density (0.55～0.70 g/cm3) and high density (0.75～1.3 g/cm3), usually produced 0.65 ~0.75 g/cm3 density particleboard.
According to the slab structure, it is divided into single-layer, three-layer (including multi-layer) and gradual structure. According to the water resistance, it is divided into indoor and outdoor water resistance. According to the placement of shavings in the slab, there are two types: directional and random. In addition, there are particle boards made of non-wood materials such as cotton stalks, hemp stalks, bagasse, rice husks, etc., and cement wood wool boards and cement particle boards made of inorganic adhesive materials. There are many specifications for particleboard, with thickness ranging from 1.6 to 75 mm, with 19 mm as the standard thickness. Commonly used thicknesses are 13, 16, and 19 mm.
In addition, we often see plastic materials on satellite boxes and small Bluetooth speakers. They have the characteristics of lightness and plasticity. The advantages of plastics are simple processing, beautiful appearance, and low cost in mass production. But it does not mean that plastic is synonymous with low grade. Like some well-known foreign brands, plastic materials are also used in high-end products, which can also produce good sound.
We cannot simply assume that the sound quality of plastic data speakers must be inferior to wood speakers. The requirement of the speaker box for the data is that resonance does not occur easily, which affects the sound quality. As long as the plastic speakers pass some special planning or use special plastic materials, and have outstanding technical guarantees, the same can achieve better acoustic effects.
Nowadays, some major foreign brands, in order to seek the beauty and artistry of speakers, also choose glass as the cabinet. But it is worth noting that this material is not actually silica glass in our traditional sense, but a fashionable plexiglass. Unlike glass in the traditional sense, it is not as fragile as we imagined in terms of material, and its material has good transparency, chemical stability, mechanical function and weather resistance. The most classic is Harman's crystal speaker.
Although metal speakers are rare in ordinary days, it does not mean that they are not suitable for speaker cabinets. Metal is stronger than wood and plastic in strength and density, so it can create a more distinctive tone. In addition, because the color and texture of the metal material itself are in line with the current mainstream aesthetic orientation, metal speakers also give people a very advanced feeling. Many small-volume portable speakers use metal materials. In Bluetooth small speakers, the use of metal is more appropriate and widespread.
Does the rock speaker sound like a spoof now? But in fact, speakers with stone as the cabinet do exist, and many DIY speaker players also like to use marble as a polished cabinet. Stone has a certain advantage in suppressing resonance. The use of stone as the speaker cabinet is more of a player's choice. For brands that are mainly commercial sales, wood and plastic are more suitable.
to sum up:
Usually, if you make it yourself, you can use medium density board. If you use solid wood, it is too expensive to buy high-quality wood. The planning of the internal structure of the speaker, the selection of the unit, the setting of the crossover, the wiring, and the binding posts will affect the sound quality, and DIY usually does a lot of power amplifiers. It is difficult to do well with speakers and CD players. It is better to go buy.