1. According to the principle of transducer (transducer)
Mainly there are two types of dynamic and electrostatic headphones. Although there are several types such as equal magnetic types in addition to these two types, they have either been eliminated or have a very small market share for professional use. , Do not discuss here.
Principle of moving coil earphones: At present, most (about 99%) earphone earplugs belong to this type. The principle is similar to ordinary speakers. The coil in a permanent magnetic field is connected to the diaphragm, and the coil drives the diaphragm to sound under the signal current.
Electrostatic earphone: The diaphragm is in a changing electric field. The diaphragm is extremely thin and accurate to a few microns (currently, the new generation of electrostatic earphone diaphragm of stax is accurate to 1.35 microns). The coil drives the diaphragm to sound under the drive of the electric field.
2: According to the degree of openness
Mainly open, semi-open, closed (closed)
Open earphones generally have a natural sense of hearing and are comfortable to wear. They are common in hifi earphones that are appreciated at home. The sound can leak, and vice versa. The outside sound can also be heard. The earphones have less pressure on the ears.
Semi-open: There are no strict regulations, the sound can only enter but not exit, or only exit but not enter, and make corresponding adjustments as needed
Closed type: The earmuffs put a lot of pressure on the ears to prevent the sound from entering and exiting, and the sound is correctly positioned and clear. This type is more common in the professional monitoring field. However, this type of headphones has a disadvantage of serious bass staining. The w100 is an obvious example.
3: According to purpose
Mainly home (home), portable (portable), monitor (monitor), mixing (mix), human head record (binaural recording)
What do some relevant parameters and sound quality terms of headphones mean?
1. Headphone related parameters
Impedance: Pay attention to the difference between resistance and resistance. In the world of direct current (dc), the effect of objects on the current is called resistance, but in the field of alternating current (ac), in addition to resistance hindering current, capacitance and inductance It will also hinder the flow of current. This effect is called reactance. What we call impedance is the sum of resistance and reactance in a vector.
Sensitivity: The sound pressure level that the earphone can emit when the power of 1 milliwatt is input to the earphone (the unit of sound pressure is decibels, the greater the sound pressure, the greater the volume), so generally the higher the sensitivity and the lower the impedance, the earphone The easier it is to make a sound, the easier it is to drive.
Frequency response: The sensitivity value corresponding to the frequency is the frequency response, and the graph is the frequency response curve. The range that human hearing can reach is about 20hz-20000hz. The current mature headset technology has reached this Claim.
2. Sound quality evaluation terms
Range: the range between the highest and lowest notes that an instrument or human voice can reach
Tone: also known as timbre, one of the basic properties of sound, such as Erhu and Pipa are different tones
Sound dyeing: The opposite of the natural neutrality of music, that is, the sound has some characteristics that the program itself does not have. For example, the sound obtained by speaking into a jar is a typical sound dyeing. Sound coloration indicates that some components are added (or reduced) in the replayed signal, which is obviously a kind of distortion.
Distortion: The output of the device cannot fully reproduce its input, resulting in waveform distortion or increase or decrease in signal components.
Dynamic: Allow to record the ratio of the largest information to the smallest information
Transient response: the ability of the equipment to follow the sudden signal in music. The equipment with good transient response should respond immediately as soon as the signal comes, and stop abruptly when the signal stops. (Typical musical instrument: piano)
Signal-to-noise ratio: also known as signal-to-noise ratio, the contrast between the useful components of the signal and the noise, often expressed in decibels. The higher the signal-to-noise ratio of the device, the less noise it produces.
Air: An acoustic term used to express the openness of the treble, or the space between the instruments in the sound field. At this time, the high frequency response can be extended to 15khz-20khz. Antonyms are "dull" and "thick"
Low frequency extension: Refers to the lowest frequency that audio equipment can reproduce. It is a scale used to determine how deep a sound system or speakers can dive when playing bass. For example, the low frequency extension of a small subwoofer can reach 40hz, while a large subwoofer can dive to 16hz.
Bright: refers to highlight the high frequency band of 4khz-8khz, when the harmonics are relatively stronger than the fundamental wave. Brightness itself is not a problem. Live concerts all have bright sounds. The problem is that they are bright enough to be well controlled. Too bright (or even howling) is annoying