Classification of speakers
①According to the frequency of speaker reproduction
A. Full-range speaker: able to reproduce full-range sound (20Hz-22kHz).
B. Tweeter: also known as the high-frequency sound head, tweeter, mainly reproduces the sound of the high frequency part of 6-22kHz.
C. Midrange speaker: capable of reproducing 200Hz-6kHz sound.
D. Woofer: also known as subwoofer or subwoofer (16Hz-200Hz).
②According to size
Tweeters can be divided into 80mm (3in), 100mm (4in), 130mm (5in), 150mm (6in), 200mm (8in), 250mm (10in), 300mm (12in), etc. (Note 1in=25.3mm) There are also round shapes such as 100mm150mm, 130mm150mm, 150mm230mm, etc. It can be selected according to the size reserved in the car.
③According to performance and use
Can be divided into: unit speaker, package speaker, coaxial speaker, subwoofer.
A. Unit speaker:
Most of the original speakers on the car are unit speakers, which are simple in structure and can only represent the mid-frequency range. The treble is not bright and the bass is not thick. It is a low-end product.
B. Set speakers:
The package speaker is composed of tweeter (tweeter), midrange speaker, crossover, etc. Two frequency dividers and three frequency dividers are commonly used. The advantage is that they are beneficial to the sound field positioning. Since different speakers are responsible for different frequencies, the frequency division is accurate and the frequency range is wide. Here I want to introduce the frequency divider. The crossover audio knowledge connects the sound source, treble, and mid-bass to make it a system. Its function is to assign the correct frequency to the corresponding speakers to ensure that the high and mid-range speakers can perform their duties. There are 0, -3dB, -6dB marks on some crossovers. It is actually an attenuation circuit of a tweeter. You can choose which one to connect the tweeter to according to your listening preferences.
Due to the excellent sound field localization capability of the set speakers, they are generally used in the front sound field. It should be noted that the distance between the tweeter and the midrange speaker should not exceed 30cm during installation. So as not to sound too loose. The installation position of the tweeter is particularly important for audio knowledge. Because it will determine the position of the entire sound field.
INPUT is the audio source input, WOO is connected to the midrange speaker, and TWE is connected to the tweeter.
WOO and TWE also write Mid and High. The labels of different manufacturers are different, so you should accumulate more English words (there is an appendix at the end of the book). Only the speakers of this model can be connected to the crossover. Do not connect other speakers randomly. Because the crossover point and other parameters of the speakers of this model are well-designed, if you connect other speakers indiscriminately, the effect will not meet the design requirements, or even burn the tweeter.
C. Coaxial speaker:
It is to place the tweeters on the coaxial or the same chassis. The advantage of coaxial speakers is that they are easy to install and have the same sound source, that is, point sound source. The disadvantage is that the treble often "covers" the midrange; the sound is hard and the sound field is uneven, and it is generally recommended to be used as a rear sound field speaker. In practice, the performance of the 150mm230mm coaxial speaker is still good.
Generally, it is above 200mm and is installed in a specially made subwoofer. The smaller the size of the woofer, the harder and crisper the sound effect; the larger the size, the deeper the sound effect and the heavier the reverberation.
Currently on the market, a ready-made subwoofer is used for bass, which saves the trouble of making speakers, but the effect is not as good as speakers. The subwoofer is just a low-end product. The subwoofer can be divided into two types: active and passive. Active subwoofer refers to an independent power supply to drive the built-in power amplifier of the subwoofer to drive the subwoofer. The passive subwoofer has no built-in power amplifier, and the subwoofer is directly driven by the car power amplifier.
Bass can greatly improve the listening experience in the car, especially in high-speed driving, the bass will be greatly attenuated, it is necessary to add a bass system. The woofer can generally be divided into two types: single voice coil and dual voice coil. Its impedance 2, 4, 6, 8, and 6 are commonly used in European speakers.