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What types of microphones are there?

2021-02-20 474
Many people are confused about the choice of microphone.

I don't know what price and what type of microphone to choose, especially for some network anchors, people are stupid and have a lot of money, and many are fooled.

Microphone, abbreviated as Mic. Microphone also has a scientific name called "microphone", which very directly points out the essence of a microphone: a device that picks up and transmits sound.

Here is a brief introduction to the 6 subdivision types of microphones.

Dynamic microphone
[Dynamic Microphone] A dynamic microphone is made using electromagnetic induction. When the sound wave vibrates the diaphragm, the coil (called the voice coil) connected to the diaphragm vibrates together, and the voice coil vibrates in the magnetic field. Among them, an induced current (electric signal) is generated. The magnitude and direction of the induced current change. The amplitude and frequency of the change are determined by the sound wave. This signal current is amplified by the loudspeaker and transmitted to the speaker, and the amplified sound is emitted from the speaker.
Advantages: The dynamic microphone structure is relatively simple, so it is economical and durable. They can withstand extremely high sound pressure and are almost unaffected by extreme temperatures or humidity.
Application: Generally used in stage performances, KTV, wedding hosting, conference teaching, brass instruments, near-field drums, etc.

Small diaphragm condenser microphone
[Small-diaphragm condenser microphone] The condenser microphone is designed based on the principle of electrostatics. The diaphragm and the back plate constitute a capacitive unit. The vibration of the diaphragm with the sound wave causes the potential difference between it and the back plate to change, thereby converting the acoustic signal into electricity. signal. Condenser microphones generally have built-in amplifiers because the output of the condenser unit is very weak. Condenser microphones require an external 48 V phantom power supply or battery. The significance of choosing a small-diaphragm condenser microphone is that those small diaphragms with a diameter of about 12 mm are very sensitive to the vibration of sound waves.
Advantages: durable and not easy to be interfered by low frequency and environmental noise, high frequency and bright, fast response

Applicable to: recording studio recording, high frequency instrument recording, such as cymbals, violin, etc.

What types of microphones are there?

Large diaphragm condenser microphone
[Large-diaphragm condenser microphone] In the past, microphone manufacturers could not make the diaphragm as exquisite as it is now. All the condenser microphones at that time should be called "large-diaphragm condenser microphones." Of course, there is no dividing line to define what is a "large diaphragm" and what is a "small diaphragm". As mentioned earlier, a size of about 12 mm can be called a "small diaphragm", and a size of 24 mm or larger can be counted as a "large diaphragm". When buying a microphone, we will find that some microphones that look very large have a surprisingly small diaphragm inside, so the size of the diaphragm is a microphone parameter that requires our special attention.
Advantages: It can give you the kind of sound that the recording studio particularly admires-the sound is thick and warm, and it feels very comfortable no matter what sound is recorded.
Suitable for: professional recording in recording studio, quiet live environment

Tube microphone
[Tube microphone] The design and manufacture of this type of microphone dates back to the early days of condenser microphones. At that time, because transistors had not yet been widely used, the built-in amplifiers of condenser microphones were all used tubes. Although some tube microphones used to have small diaphragms, most of the tube microphones we see now have large diaphragms. Advantages: The tube amplifier is easy to produce a very pleasant and comfortable pickup effect, that is, "warm sound". Nowadays, tube microphones have become very popular, and the price remains high.
Suitable for: professional recording in studio

Ribbon microphone
[Aluminum ribbon microphone] is also a kind of dynamic microphone. It is mainly through the vibration of the metal sheet itself according to the change of sound pressure to drive the change of the current in the magnetic field, thereby finally generating the sound signal. Since the area of the metal sheet is smaller than that of the diaphragm and the coil, this ribbon microphone has a higher response to high frequencies than a dynamic microphone, but it is still not comparable to a condenser microphone.
Advantages: good frequency response characteristics, high sensitivity, low distortion, large signal-to-noise ratio, small size and sensitivity
Suitable for: vocals, digital recording, especially percussion instruments and brass

Electret microphone
【Electret microphone】Electret microphone is a special condenser microphone. We already know that the principle of a condenser microphone is that the amount of polarized charge on the capacitor changes, thereby generating electrical signals at both ends of the capacitor to achieve acoustic-electric signal conversion. The electret material is a material that can permanently retain these charges after adding charges. Using this principle, the electret material on the diaphragm or the backplane provides the constant voltage required by the capacitor unit, which can save the power supply of the microphone. However, the work of the microphone built-in amplifier still requires battery or phantom power. It should be noted that battery-based electret microphones are less sensitive than phantom-powered ones, and have a weaker ability to handle maximum sound pressure.
Advantages: small size, simple structure, good electroacoustic performance, low price
Suitable for: communication equipment, household appliances and other electronic products

Generally speaking, in the field of live broadcast, anchors generally use condenser microphones, which have high sensitivity and require a quiet live broadcast environment, but they are expensive. In the field of professional recording, such as recording studios, the above types of microphones may be used.
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